Will Lithium-ion Battery Be Replaced By Solid-state Battery in the Future?
With the development of new energy vehicles, high energy density, high security batteries have become the market's goal. Some experts believe that the use of solid electrolytes to replace traditional electrolytes is the only way to enhance the safety of lithium batteries.
The all-solid-state lithium-ion battery uses a solid electrolyte instead of the traditional organic liquid electrolyte, and is expected to solve the battery safety problem fundamentally. It is an ideal chemical power source for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. The structure of the all-solid lithium ion battery includes a positive electrode, an electrolyte, and a negative electrode, all of which are composed of a solid material.
Advantages compared to traditional electrolyte lithium-ion batteries：
1. The safety hazard of electrolyte corrosion and leakage is completely eliminated, and the thermal stability is higher. Since the liquid electrolyte contains a flammable organic solution, it is prone to combustion and explosion when the short-circuit temperature rises suddenly, and it is necessary to install a safety device structure resistant to temperature rise and short circuit. The solid electrolyte is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-volatile, and has no leakage problems, and also overcomes the phenomenon of lithium dendrite, so the all-solid battery has extremely high safety.
2. It does not need to enclose liquid, supports serial superimposed arrangement and bipolar structure, and improves production efficiency;
3. Due to the solid state characteristics of the solid electrolyte, a plurality of electrodes may be stacked;
4. Electrochemical stability window width (up to 5V or more), can match high voltage electrode materials;
5. The solid electrolyte is generally a single-ion conductor with almost no side reactions and a longer service life;
6. Compared to liquid batteries, with battery packs of the same capacity, solid electrolyte batteries are relatively light, such as Tesla-Panasonic's ternary lithium battery pack quality is of 900kg, and the quality of the group with the same capacity battery produced by solid-state battery startup SeeoInc is only 323kg, which is close to one third of the former.
However, solid state batteries also have disadvantages. The overall low conductivity of solid electrolytes leads to a low overall rate performance, a large internal resistance, a slow charging rate, and a high overall cost. Now, if solid-state batteries compete with ordinary lithium-ion batteries in the traditional market, there is no too big an advantage. Therefore, to play the other high-performance characteristics of the solid-state battery itself, high-temperature stability, flexibility that may be achieved, and other traditional multi-functional characteristics, the competition with the traditional lithium-ion battery in the differentiated market may be a promising market breakthrough in the near future of solid-state batteries direction.
In the whole, the maturity of the preparation technology of solid-state batteries needs to be strengthened, and the enterprises that can form large-scale production capacity are limited. There are still many difficulties to be overcome in the scale-up of technology expansion, and it is still in the promotion and development period. However, it can be expected that with the continuous development of R&D and industrial technology, the scientific and technological problems in all-solid-state batteries will gradually be alleviated. In the next few years, the market for solid-state battery products will usher in a booming opportunity.
This article is from Allicdata Electronics Limited. Reprinted need to indicate the source.